Integrating Indigenous Knowledge into Environmental Management in Nova Scotia
Courtney Hangle (Best Overall Undergraduate Paper, Science)
This literature review outlines the integration of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) into environmental management in Nova Scotia. While current Western environmental management practices are steeped in history, Western science, and anthropocentric perspectives toward nature, Indigenous ecological worldviews may provide an alternative method of managing the natural world, while also including First Nations in environmental decision-making. The potential benefits of IK have been recognized by policy-makers and included in large-scale local and global policy, such as the UN Convention on Biological Diversity—an international Treaty with 168 signatories (Convention on Biological Diversity, n.d., n.p.; Turner, Ignace, & Ignace, 2000, p. 1275). Even so, there are challenges in merging two modes of thinking about the environment, including stereotypes and communication barriers. However, Nova Scotia has made great strides toward the inclusion of Indigenous perspectives, and Mi’kmaq perspectives specifically, through the creation of First Nations-governed environmental organizations such as the Unamak’ki Institute of Natural Resources and the Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nations Chiefs Secretariat, both of which have strong ties to the federal government (McGregor, 2016, p. 46-48; McMillan & Prosper, 2016, p. 640; UINR, 2016c, para. 3). Nevertheless, Indigenous involvement must continue to increase within the context of environmental problem-solving in Nova Scotia, especially regarding the status of eels, which may be dealt with through proposed amendments to the Fisheries Act (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2018, para. 4; Giles, Fanning, Denny, & Paul, 2016, 167-183; Species at Risk Public Registry, 2013, n.p.).
Scarring the Landscape: The 1827 Halifax Smallpox Epidemic
Logan Robertson (Social Sciences)
Until the World Health Organization’s declaration of smallpox eradication in 1980 (Fenner et al. 1988, vii), the disease was of constant concern. Spreading globally, it destroyed families indiscriminately, leaving a wake of death and decay felt long after its departure. Its presence left scars on those who survived the encounter, and powerful images of those survivors persist today.
Halifax was no exception to disease. Smallpox outbreaks dated from the founding of the city, due to crowding of residents that persisted over time. Figure 1 displays the congestion of the port town in 1853 and offers a glimpse into the density of the settlement. The close proximity fostered by an urban environment, coupled with poor sanitation practices and minimal healthcare, supported the proliferation of a variety of diseases. The smallpox epidemic of 1827 was not only one of the more virulent epidemics, but had notable influence on future decisions in determining the medical welfare of the city.
The Enslavement of the Muse in the Works of Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Shyloe Beals (Humanities)
Following its establishment in 1848, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood saw the swift rise in fame of its most prominent member, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (hereafter DGR), a leading poet and painter of the mid-Victorian period. As I shall show in this paper, DGR’s artwork and poetry invites us to consider the problematic relationship between the artist and his muse Elizabeth “Lizzie” Siddal, a model for the Pre-Raphaelites. Lizzie became highly critical of how women, primarily herself, were represented by the Pre-Raphaelites. In this regard, she aligned with DGR’s sister, the poet Christina Rossetti, in offering a strident critique of the group’s enslavement of the muse: the male artist’s objectification of his model, which renders her an object of illustration to be gazed upon. The representation of the Pre-Raphaelite muse reflects DGR’s unsettling relationship with Lizzie, first as his model and later as his wife. An exploration of the relationship between DGR and Lizzie sheds light on the destructive, real-life effects DGR’s work had on Lizzie as the living muse, encouraging the reader or viewer to revisit the work and perhaps revise their interpretation of it.