Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Susan Heming, 1992

A Critique of the United Nation's Policies for Controlling Land-based Pollution for Coastal Management


The purpose of this study was to examine the United Nations' Environmental Program's policies on land-based pollution as defined by the Montreal Guidelines. Using a matrix, the Montreal Guidelines were evaluated against criteria that were derived from a literature review. This review included various examples of watershed management techniques that are being employed either nationally or regionally.

Upon completing the matrix analyses, various inconsistencies were noted between the national and regional examples and the Montreal Guidelines. Inconsistencies included the lack of promoting public participation in environmental management decisions, as well as a failure to address gaps that exist between government and cultural institutions.

A new departure in environmental management has been noted which involves a "bottom up" approach. Recommendations are given to UNEP that incorporates this new approach.