Department of Sociology & Criminology

Dr. Stephen Schneider, Associate Professor; Coordinator, Criminology Graduate Program

Current Research

Saint Mary's University Academic Resilience Team (2014 to present) - This pilot project is a quasi-experiment built on principles of crime prevention through social development  and recidivism prevention. The project helps disadvantaged and marginalized youth achieve academic success, which includes completing high school and successfully enrolling at Saint Mary's University or another post-secondary institution. The evidence-based intervention principles and strategies being used in this project include the following:

  • tutoring, mentoring, and advocacy by trained SMU students,
  • development of an academic success plan for the youth,
  • psycho-educational and aptitude assessments of the youth, to identify cognitive and intellectual strengths and weaknesses,
  • incentives, including immediate material incentives and long-term financial support (e.g., tuition reduction, bursaries, etc.),
  • support for the youth as they transition from high school or the criminal justice system to their post-secondary education, and
  • therapeutic treatment (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy) to address any psychological, mental health, cognitive or social competency risk factors.


Recent ResearchAddressing Youth Crime and Violence in the HRM: Research Findings and Recommendations. Final report submitted as part of the HRM Mayor’s Roundtable on Violence (2014) - This report documents the findings of research to assess initiatives in the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) that address youth and gang violence specifically, and serious and chronic youth offending generally. Based on this research, policy and program recommendations are made to the HRM government to address this problem more effectively.

The SMU PALS Program - PALS was a social developmental program is for children (ages 6 to 12) who live in disadvantaged environments in Halifax. The program began in May of 2006 and ended in December of 2010. The program was meant to address – in a multi-component, complimentary and integrated fashion – factors that put disadvantaged children at risk by enhancing their personal “resilience.” The program promoted the following “protective factors” essential to the positive development and personal resilience of children and youth. The acronym PALS stands for Positive Role Models and Mentors, Academic Tutoring, Leisure and Physical Activities, and Social and Life Skills Development. PALS was funded through a $400,000 grant from the National Crime Prevention Centre.



Review of Iced by Cameron McIntosh

Review of Iced by Howard Abadinsky


Peer-Reviewed Articles

2013 - “Violence, organized crime, and illicit markets: A Canadian case study.” Sociology: Problems and Practices. No. 71, January/April.

2008 - Obstacles to an integrated, joint forces approach to organized crime enforcement: A Canadian case study (co-authored with Christine Hurst), Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31 (3), 359-379.

2006 - “Privatising economic crime enforcement: Exploring the role of private sector investigative agencies in combating money laundering.” Policing and Society. 16(3), 285-313.

2006 - “Testing the limits of solicitor-client privilege: Lawyers, money laundering, and suspicious transaction reporting.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 10(1), 27-47.

2005 - “Money Laundering Through Securities - An Analysis of Canadian Police Cases.” Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law. Vol. IV, June, 169-184.

2005 - “Organized and financial crimes in the Canadian real estate market.” Journal of Property Research. 21(2), 1-20.

2004 - “Money laundering in Canada: A quantitative analysis of RCMP cases.” Journal of Financial Crime. 11(3) January, 282-291.

2003 - “The incorporation and operation of criminally-controlled companies in Canada.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 7(2) November, 126-138.

2002 - “Addressing staff safety at high-risk social assistance offices.” Security Journal. 15(1), 63-81.

2001 - “Alternative approaches to combating organized crime: A conceptual framework and empirical analysis.” International Journal of Comparative Criminology. 1(2), 144-179.

2000 - “Contraband smuggling and its enforcement in Canada: An evaluation of the Canadian Anti-Smuggling Initiative.” Trends in Organized Crime.  6(2), 3-31.

2000 - “Organizational obstacles to participation in community crime prevention programs: The case of Mount Pleasant (Vancouver, Canada).” International Criminal Justice Review.   Vol. 10, 32-53.

1999 - “Barriers to communication between police and socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods: A critical theory of community policing.” Crime, Law and Social Change. 30(4), 347-377.

1998 - “Combating organized crime in (and by) the private sector: A normative role for Canada's forensic investigative firms.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 14(4), 351-367.

Other Published Articles

2018 -  “Evidence-based community practice and university Involvement,” Justice Report, Canadian Criminal Justice Association, Issue 32.4, pp. 23-27.

2015 - “Deferred prosecution won’t put a dent in corporate crime.” Globe and Mail, Report on Business (Commentary), June 2, 2010 - “Our healthiest industry? Organized crime in Canada.” Literary Review of Canada. January/February, pp. 20-22

2003 - “Organized crime.” pp. 1041-1045 in Karen Christensen and David Levinson (eds.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

2002 - “Organized crime - Global.” pp. 1112-1118 in David Levinson (ed.) Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

2000 - “Transnational organized crime and the Canadian business community.” Canadian International Lawyer. 4(2): 95-100.

2000 - “Dirty money: How new money laundering legislation places an increased onus on insurance companies.” Canadian Insurance.   August: 24-27.

1999 - “Maximizing staff safety. Learning lessons after a violent outburst at a government social services office.” Canadian Security. August/September: 30-34

1995 - “The criminal intelligence function: Toward a comprehensive and normative model.” Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst Digest. 9(2): 1-26.

Conference Presentations

The SMART Project: Addressing Academic Failure as a Criminogenic Risk Factor, 8th National Conference on Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, Harm and Harm Reduction in the Criminal Justice System, June 21 & 22, 2018, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (peer-reviewed)

“Organized Crime and Money Laundering in Canada: Recent Trends and Developments,” Money Laundering and Organized Crime: Protecting Business, Sponsored by About Business Crime Solutions, Oct. 5-7, 2016, Toronto, Ontario

“Unethical and Unlawful Behaviour by Pathological Financial Institutions: Implications for Human Rights and Social Justice, presentation at the Fifth National Conference Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, University of Ottawa, May 28-29, 2015 (peer-reviewed)

“Characteristics of a Criminal Organization.” Presentation at the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Expert Witness Training Workshop, Ontario Provincial Police/Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Oct. 10, 2012

“‘Ndrangheta: A Historical Analysis and Contemporary Threat Assessment.” Presentation at the Law Enforcement Intelligence Units / International Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts Annual Training Conference, San Diego, April 30-May 4, 2012

“History of Organized Crime in Canada: Parallels with the Present & Lessons Learned.” Presentation at the Organized Crime Workshop, Conference Board of Canada, Centre for National Security, February 16, 2012

“Crime Prevention through Social Development.” Presentation at Best Practices to Combat Organized Crime Research Workshop. Public Safety Canada, Sheraton Hotel, Ottawa, Ontario, November 17-18, 2009


Published Government and Private Sector Studies

2014 - Addressing Youth Crime and Violence in the HRM: Research Findings and Recommendations. Report submitted to the Mayor and Council of the Halifax Regional Municipality (as part of the Mayor’s Roundtable on Violence, February)

2011 - A Study of the Vulnerability of Marine Ports to Organized Crime. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada (on behalf of Presidia Security Consulting Inc.). May.

2010 - A Problem-Oriented Approach To Securities Fraud. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada. (Lead Author: Rick Linden), April.

2009 - Developing and Applying An Organized Crime Harm Index: A Scoping And Feasibility Study. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada. September.

2003 - Money laundering in Canada: An Analysis of RCMP Case Files. Toronto: Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, York University. February, 

2002 - Predicting Crime: A Review of the Research. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. March. 


Courses Taught


  • CRIM 2304: Canadian Criminal Justice
  • CRIM / SOCI 3526: Organized Crime
  • CRIM / SOCI 4800: Practicum in Community Development 
  • CRIM 4805: Recidivism Prevention
  • CRIM 6600: Advanced Graduate Seminar